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It is considered to be an illegal act under the Federal Law of the United States to discriminate against an employee either through a disparate effect or with intent on account of several factors such as race, sex (and pregnancy), religion, color, age (40 or older), origin of nationality, genetic information or disability.

This body of federal law covers employment agencies, employers, and labor unions that have a minimum of 15 employees.

Acts that prevent Discrimination

Title II and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act disallows discrimination of employees and applicants based on their sex, national origin, race, and so on.

It also prevents retaliation for filing a charge, complaints, or aiding the investigation of discrimination by protecting the victims of this act.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)

This act prohibits the discrimination of employment opportunities for individuals of 40 years of age and older.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

This act is a federal law that disallows discrimination that may occur against individuals with a disability (employees, guests, or applicants).

It also provides that reasonable accommodation is made available for individuals who are legally disabled.

Equal Pay Act (EPA)

This Act is essentially an amendment to the Fair Labor Standard Acts, and it forbids paying different wages to employees of different sexes who perform regular duties under the same conditions.

Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA)

This act is an amendment to the Title VII act, which prohibits discriminating against an employee based on her pregnancy.

Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act (GINA)

This act disallows discrimination against employees based on their genetic information.

Genetic Information refers to information concerning the genetic tests of an individual or members of his family.


A charge of discrimination must be filed with the Federal, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) or with the local agency, against the individual who committed the offense, by the individual discriminated against, before the charge against the employer would be taken to court.